By Enlli Mon Thomas, Ineke Mennen

This publication offers a modern method of the research of bilingualism. Drawing on contributions from prime specialists within the box, this booklet brings jointly - in one quantity - a variety of the interesting paintings performed as a part of the programme of the ESRC Centre for examine on Bilingualism in idea and perform at Bangor college, Wales.

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A few loanwords from English were included in the Welsh set since they were fully integrated into the Welsh language and could be found in a standard Welsh dictionary (Evans & Thomas, 2008). Only non-mutated word forms were included in the Welsh word list since mutation constitutes a separate aspect of Welsh language acquisition. Mutations are a characteristic of Celtic languages and involve morphophonological changes that affect the initial consonants of words (Ball & Müller, 1992; Thomas & Gathercole, 2007).

1990; Templin, 1957), the bilingual children in the present study exhibited a considerably faster rate of acquisition. Thus, they managed to acquire all clusters, except /fr/, /skr/ and /θr/ by 5;0. In contrast, Smit et al. (1990) report that a number of Speech Lear ning in Bilingual s 21 additional clusters, including /sl/,/sm/,/sn/,/skw/,/spl/,/spr/ and /str/, had not yet reached the 75% acquisition threshold by 5;0. , 2001 for an overview). What these findings suggest then is that the bilingual environment in Wales may have had a facilitative effect on phonological acquisition, perhaps because children who routinely need to differentiate two distinct phonological codes require enhanced phonological knowledge.

1993) which is expressed by the phonetic symbol [ɬ]. In Standard German, the back of the tongue is usually not elevated during the realisation of word final lateral (Kufner, 1970; Moulton, 1970; Wells, 1982). This flatter position of the back of the tongue is reflected in a higher F2 frequency; the phonetic symbol used to represent the realisation of the German lateral is [l]. , 1993). A constriction, or lack of constriction, in the back of the oral cavity may influence not only F2 in German and English, but potentially also the first formant, or F1, in the lateral segment (Neppert, 1999).

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