By Roberto Scatena (auth.), Roberto Scatena, Alvaro Mordente, Bruno Giardina (eds.)

In contemporary years, melanoma stem cells were famous as vital part in carcinogenesis and so they appear to shape the foundation of many (if now not all) tumor kinds. melanoma stem cells or "cancer telephone like stem cells" were remoted from a variety of cancers of alternative foundation (blood, breast, mind, dermis, head and neck, thyroid, cervix, lung, retina, colon, pancreas and so on). melanoma stem cells - infrequent cells with indefinite proliferative capability that force the formation and development of tumours- appear to convey interesting relationships with physiological stem cells. particularly, those melanoma cells exhibit major similarities within the mechanisms that control self-renewal of standard stem cells. additionally, tumour cells could at once come up from general stem cells. extra, the mobile biology of melanoma stem cells exhibit loads of similarities with general stem cells.

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60, 4403–4411 (2000). Chiou SH, Yu CC, Huang CY, et al. Positive correlations of Oct-4 and Nanog in oral cancer stem-like cells and high-grade oral squamous cell carcinoma. Clin. Cancer Res. 14(13), 4085–4095 (2008). Christensen R, Alsner J, Brandt Sorensen F, Dagnaes-Hansen F, Kolvraa S, Serakinci N. Transformation of human mesenchymal stem cells in radiation carcinogenesis: long-term effect of ionizing radiation. Regen. Med. 3(6), 849–861 (2008). de Bont JM, Packer RJ, Michiels EM, den Boer ML, Pieters R.

2008). Established cell lines from glioma (C6), osteosarcoma (3AB-OS), lung carcinoma (3LL), and breast carcinoma (MCF7) also express Oct4 at high levels (Hu et al. 2008; Di Fiore et al. 2009). Oct4 silencing by RNA interference in rat C6 cells and human MCF7 cells inhibited proliferation and increased apoptosis, respectively, suggesting a functional relevance of Oct4 in tumorigenesis. K. Okamoto Another pluripotency factor, LIN28, is known to be aberrantly expressed in cancer cells. LIN28 is an RNA-binding protein that, together with OCT4, NANOG, and SOX2, has been shown to induce pluripotency in mature cells like fibroblasts (Yu et al.

Wnt Signaling Pathway The Wnt family of secreted proteins coordinates diverse developmental processes, including cell proliferation and fate decisions (Logan and Nusse 2004; Moon et al. 2004; Reya and Clevers 2005). In mammals, there are 20 Wnt members, 10 Wnt receptors (called Frizzled, Frz), and 5 soluble forms of Frz, which are natural inhibitors of Wnt signaling. Once Frz is activated, E-catenin, which is a central player in canonical Wnt signaling, accumulates in the nucleus and induces the expression of Wnt target genes, including c-myc and cyclin D1, by associating with LEF/TCF transcription factors (Fig.

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