By George F. Vande Woude (ed.), George Klein (ed.)

Offers necessary details at the fascinating and fast-moving box of melanoma research. Outstanding and unique experiences are provided on a number of subject matters.

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Extra info for Advances in Cancer Research, Vol. 108

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In addition, combination of mutations rather than single mutation was associated with the development of progressive liver diseases, especially in combination with pre-S deletion. Similarly, a case–control study from Hong Kong on the risks for HCC with respect to HBV genotypes, specific viral mutants, serum HBV DNA levels, and cirrhosis showed that CP mutant, T1653, HBV DNA ! 2000 IU/mL, and cirrhosis were independent factors for HCC. , 2008). In Japan, an age, sex, and HBeAg status-matched cross-sectional control study was conducted to determine HCC-associated mutations of the HBV genome in the entire X, CP, and precore/core regions between 80 patients infected with HBV subgenotype C2 with HCC and 80 without HCC.

The relationship was most prominent for participants who were seronegative for HBeAg with normal serum ALT levels and no cirrhosis at study entry. Participants with persistent elevation of serum HBV DNA level during follow-up had the highest HCC risk. , 2006b). 0) in those with high viral load (! 2 Â 104 IU/mL). Taken together, the ample evidence from these different prospective cohort studies strongly documents that the best predictor of adverse outcomes (cirrhosis, HCC and liver-related mortality) in Asian adult HBV carriers is the serum HBV DNA level at enrollment, independent of HBeAg status, baseline serum ALT level, and other risk factors.

All these facts suggest that even a 30 Jia-Horng Kao et al. relatively low serum HBV DNA level (< 200 IU/mL) is associated with HCC development in a certain proportion of CHB patients. Although high serum HBV DNA level at study entry has been suggested to increase the risk of HCC in HBV carriers over time, little is known about the longitudinal course of viral load and its relationship with HCC development. , 2008a). HBV genotype and viral load were tested from 112 cases and 1031 noncases. Prediagnostic HBV DNA levels were measured in multiple samples collected from each man (total 7706 samples), taken over periods of up to 16 years before the diagnosis of HCC.

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