By James M. Livingstone (auth.)

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The various proportions are intended to represent a cross-section of the whole population. The intention, then, is that the interviewer fills the quota, by stopping men and women in the street who appear to fulfil the requirements, or going from door to door on the same basis. If it transpired that someone was being interviewed after his or her group quota had been filled, then the interview would be politely terminated or simply omitted from the totals. In this way a cross-section of the whole population will be covered, without the problems already discussed of non-response or non-co-operation from specified individuals.

The median in an odd-numbered group has the advantage of being an actual value. If, however, there were either 24 or 26 in the sample (that is, an even-numbered group), it would be necessary to average out the two middle values- a procedure which incidentally weakens the case for using the median, since this process could not be so easily justified to a non-statistician as being superior to the conventional arithmetic mean calculation. The Mode To demonstrate the use of this measure we will now use the scone group of values in the original series Y, the Octane rating.

Unfortunately, too, if there is a choice between cheapness 46 THE SCOPE AND METHODS OF MARKET RESEARCH and extreme accuracy in collecting information the market researcher may have to settle for cheapness. The Average or Mean: a Representative Value There are several methods of obtaining an average or representative value for a group. The most common version of the average, the arithmetic mean, to give it its correct title, is the version most readily understood by the man in the street. For most purposes it is the most useful type of average, but its advantages and limitations can best be illustrated by a simple example.

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