By Derek Holton

The overseas Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) is an annual overseas arithmetic festival held for pre-collegiate scholars. it's also the oldest of the overseas technology olympiads, and pageant for areas is very fierce. This booklet is an amalgamation of the 1st eight of 15 booklets initially produced to steer scholars aspiring to contend for placement on their country's IMO group. the cloth contained during this ebook presents an creation to the most mathematical themes coated within the IMO, that are: Combinatorics, Geometry and quantity conception. moreover, there's a designated emphasis on tips to technique unseen questions in arithmetic, and version the writing of proofs. complete solutions are given to all questions. notwithstanding a primary Step to Mathematical Olympiad difficulties is written from the viewpoint of a mathematician, it truly is written in a fashion that makes it simply understandable to youth. This e-book can also be a must-read for coaches and teachers of mathematical competitions.

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**Sample text**

Do you agree with the following guess, or conjecture? Conjecture 1. Every amount from 8 upwards can be obtained. Of course, if you agree with the Conjecture, then you must justify your faith. If you don't agree with it, then you have to find a number above 8 that can't be made from 3 and 5. Exercises 15. If you believe in Conjecture 1, then go on to steps (h) and (i). If you think Conjecture 1 is false, then you have to prove it's false and come up with a conjecture of your own. From there you go on to steps (h) and (i) and possibly back to (g) again.

In our example with the water we had c =3 and d =5 and we found that a = 2 and b = –1. But, of course, there are lots of other possible values for a and b, so given c and d, a and b are not unique. Exercises 4. (a) In Theorem 1, let c =3 and d =7. Find possible values for a and b. Can you find all possible values for a and b? (b) Repeat (a) with c =4 and d =5. 5. Given c and d, where (c, d) = 1 (c and d have no common factor), find all possible a and b which satisfy the equation ac + bd = 1. 6.

Is 2s — 2 best possible in Theorem 3? 26. Put Exercises 24 and 25 together along with the situation where s is a multiple of 3 to form a Theorem 4. Prove the theorem. 27. Repeat Exercise 26 for 28. All numbers n > c can be written in the form n = ra + sb, where r and s have no factors in common and a and b are not negative. What is the best possible value for c in terms of r and s? Prove it. While we've been concentrating on the upper end of things, the “all n > c” part, something interesting has slipped past us at the lower end.