By Dempe S.
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Extra info for A Bundle Algorithm Applied to Bilevel Programming Problems with Non-Unique Lower Level Solutions
21, respectively, are assigned to the ﬁxed temperature numerical value t1 . , it is identical with the fuzzy set deﬁned by the corresponding membership function. , for modeling or control, is a set of fuzzy inference rules also known as a knowledge base, like in expert systems. It consists of inference rules operating on fuzzy (linguistic) variables, thus they are described as fuzzy rules. Each inference rule consists of two elements: the IF-part, called an antecedent of a rule, and the THEN-part, also called a consequent of the rule.
It sees it together with the direct control systems, for which it assigns decisions in the form of the set-point values. Moreover, when the direct controllers operate suﬃciently quickly and precisely, then the fast-changing transients induced by the inﬂuence of fast-changing disturbances are not signiﬁcant for the constraint control layer and can be ignored. Therefore, the constraint control layer deals then with a diﬀerent “plant”, whose dynamics is determined by the plant processes with slower dynamics.
Proper adjustment of process operating points to the current technological situation deﬁned by the process environment and requirements of the management layer. Moreover, microprocessor controllers allow for on-line realization of many complex control algorithms, including multivariable control and nonlinear control. It should be emphasized that the phenomena mentioned above condition each other strongly – on-line optimization of the running process assumes frequent, but always fast and reliable (thus - automatic) changes of the process operating points, implemented as changes in the set-point values for feedback controllers.